By Joint ACI-ASCE Committee 445
Transparent knowing of the results of torsion on concrete individuals is key to the secure, affordable layout of strengthened and prestressed concrete contributors. This record starts with a short and systematic precis of the 180-year background of torsion of structural concrete participants, new and up to date theories and their functions, and a old review outlining the advance of study on torsion of structural concrete participants. old theories and truss types contain classical theories of Navier, Saint-Venant, and Bredt; the 3-dimensional (3-D) house truss of Rausch; the equilibrium (plasticity) truss version of Nielson in addition to Lampert and Thürlimann; the compression box conception (CFT) via Collins and Mitchell; and the softened truss version (STM) by means of Hsu and Mo.
This record emphasizes that it's necessary to the research of torsion in bolstered concrete that participants should still: 1) fulfill the equilibrium situation (Mohr’s pressure circle); 2) obey the compatibility (Mohr’s pressure circle); and three) determine the constitutive relationships of fabrics equivalent to the “softened” stress-strain dating of concrete and “smeared” stress-strain courting of metal bars. The habit of individuals subjected to torsion mixed with bending second, axial load, and shear is mentioned. This file bargains with layout concerns, together with compatibility torsion, spandrel beams, torsional restrict layout, open sections, and dimension results.
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Extra resources for ACI 445.1R-12 - Report on Torsion in Structural Concrete
Abandoned in ACI 318-95, concrete contribution to torsion, Tc, was disregarded to simplify design. Considerable scatter produced by test specimens without transverse reinforcement confirms the sound principle that members subjected to such combined actions should contain a minimum amount of transverse and longitudinal reinforcement. 3 Members with transverse reinforcement—Development of models for torsion and shear has made it possible to calculate shear strength with accuracy similar to the flexure theory’s.
3d—Variation of angle of diagonal compressive stresses depending on T/V (Rabbat and Collins 1978). Stresses in the transverse and longitudinal reinforcement are also significantly larger on the side where the shear stresses are additive (t + v) rather than subtractive (t – v). The difference in longitudinal stress magnitude on vertical sides of the section shown in Fig. 1 causes a lateral curvature, as shown in Fig. 3e, tested by Rahal and Collins (1995b). ) (Specimen RC2-1). 1R-12) Fig. 3e—Observed and calculated lateral curvature in sections subjected to combined torsion and shear (Rahal and Collins 1995a).
5e(a)), confirming the importance of determining the strength of struts considering the web strain and cracking conditions. Fig. 5d—Interaction curves predicted by combined-action TM and the Elfgren model for McMullen and Warwaruk (1967) Series 5 and 6 (torsion, shear, and flexure) and Specimen 1-1 (pure torsion) (Greene 2006). ) Fig. 5e—Crack pattern and failure of prestressed hollow box-beam BM 2 with high shear and torsion loaded eccentrically (Leonhardt et al. 1968). 1—General Chapter 7 addresses additional issues encountered in the design of structural concrete members subjected to torsion.